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        中國少數民族運動會即將在天地之中觀星臺采集火種

        作者:不詳來源:微信 瀏覽次數: 日期:2019年5月7日 11:23

        【雙語】昔日測定節氣,今朝采集火種,最紅不過觀星臺 Dengfeng Observatory

         點擊藍字關注? WhereZhengzhou 昨天

         

        351st article    第351期原創雙語推文

         

        It is an age-old dream of starry sky exploration. In thousands of years ago, an excellent star observation place was recognized by ancient Chinese people, that is, Astronomical Observatory in Dengfeng, Zhengzhou.

        人類對星空探索的渴望古已有之。追溯千年,中國古人心中就有一個絕佳的觀星地,那便是鄭州登封觀星臺。

         

         

        astronomical Observatory 觀星臺  

        Photo:Ma Jian

         

        The Astronomical Observatory Scenic Spot is located in Gaocheng Town, Dengfeng, Zhengzhou. The town, which was once the city of Yangcheng in ancient time, is beside Ying River, bordered by the SongShan Mountain in the north and Qishan Mountain in the south. The observatory is divided into seven sections of the front and back yards including Screen Wall, Mountain Gate, Tassel Door, Shadow-measuring Platform of Lord Zhou, Grand Temple, Astronomical Observatory and Zhongsi Temple, with replicas of over ten kinds of astronomical instruments. The Shadow-measuring Platform of Lord Zhou and the observatory are the oldest astronomical architectures extant in China.

        觀星臺景區位于鄭州登封市告成鎮,北依嵩山,南望箕山,處潁河之濱,曾是古代陽城所在地。前后院落共分照壁、山門、垂花門、周公測景臺、大殿、觀星臺、螽斯殿七景,院內復制安裝各種天文儀器10多種。其中,觀星臺景區內的周公測景臺和觀星臺是中國現存最早的天文觀測建筑。

         

         

         Scaphe  仰儀  Photo:Ma Jian

         

        It is recorded that there was a “Shadow-measuring Platform of Lord Zhou” in the observatory scenic spot where, by measuring the length of shadow cast by the sun, Chou Kung found the center of earth - Yangcheng, which is the present Gaocheng, and defined “the Spring Equinox”, “the Summer Solstice”, “the Autumnal Equinox” and “the Winter Solstice” of “The Center of Heaven and Earth”. 

        觀星臺景區內有一“周公測景臺”,史載,周公曾在此用土圭之法測土深,正日影,以求地中,從而確立陽城,即今告成鎮為“天地中心”,并確立二十四節氣中的冬至、夏至、春分、秋分四個節氣。

         

         

        Shadow-measuring Platform  周公測景臺  

        Photo:Liu Kebai

         

        The Shadow-measuring Platform of Lord Zhou, made of blue stones, consists of two parts. The pedestal, working as a dial, is shaped as a trapezoidal cone with four sides in different lengths, narrow in the top and large at the bottom. And the column named as a gnomon has a tabling covering on the top and words of “Shadow-measuring Platform of Lord Zhou” carved on the south side. Many astronomers and calendarists, such as Seng Yixing (Zhang Sui) and Nangong Yue, carried out astronomical activities here in history.

        周公測景臺用青石制作,分臺座和石柱兩部分。臺座上小下大,呈梯形錐體,四邊稍有偏斜,各邊寬窄不等。石柱為表,臺座為圭,表的頂端為屋宇式蓋頂,南面刻有“周公測景臺”等字。歷史上不少天文學家、歷法家如僧一行(張遂)、南宮說等都在這里進行過天文觀測活動。

         

         

        Shadow-measuring Platform  周公測景臺

         

        Yuan dynasty observatory, which was 20 meters away from the Shadow-measuring Platform of Lord Zhou, was the center station of the 27 astronomical observatories throughout the country set up for astronomical and geodetic surveying. The observatory, one of the most famous astronomical architectures in the world, was built by Guo Shoujing, an astronomer in Yuan dynasty, in the 13th year of Zhiyuan Period of Yuan Dynasty (BC 1276). Through “measuring the sun shadow in the daytime and observing stars in the night”, Guo Shoujing finished Shoushi Calendar, the most advanced calendar in the world at that time. This book corrected the algorithm of twenty-four solar terms with only a 26-second deviation in a year comparing to the current one formed 300 years later.

        而距周公測景臺20米的元代觀星臺,是當時為實施天文大地測量在全國各地建立的27個天文臺和觀測站的中心觀測站。元十三年(公元1276年)由元代天文學家郭守敬創建,是世界上最著名的天文科學建筑物之一。郭守敬在此“晝參日影,夜觀星象”,編制了當時世界上最先進的歷法——《授時歷》,校準了二十四節氣,其精確度與現行公歷相比,一年僅相差26秒,創制時間卻早了300年。

         

         

        Astronomical Observatory 觀星臺  

        Photo:Liu Kebai

         

        The observatory is the earliest and well-preserved observatory extant in China and one the oldest astronomy architectures in the world. It was selected as one of the first-batch of China’s Key Preservation site of Cultural Relics by the State Council on March 4, 1961, and one of the eight scenic spots in Songshan Scenic Spot as well.  It is a high building built with blue masonry and consists of a platform body and a stone gnomon (or heaven measuring ruler). The platform body looks like an inverted funnel and is used for “measuring the shadow cast in the daytime, observing the stars in the night and telling the directions”. The observatory not only preserves the sundial (or material object) used in ancient time for shadow measurement, but also stands for the peak of the measuring technique since the Chou Kung time, showing the remarkable achievement of Chinese astronomical science and owing high value in both astronomical and architecture histories in the world.

        觀星臺是我國現存時代早、保護較好的天文臺,是世界上最早的天文建筑之一。1961年3月4日被國務院公布為全國第一批重點文物保護單位,也是嵩山風景名勝區的八大景區之一。觀星臺是一座高大的青磚石結構建筑,由臺身和量天尺組成,臺身形狀是覆斗狀,其作用是“晝參日影,夜觀極星,以正朝夕”。它不僅保存了我國古代圭表測影的實物,也是自周公土圭測影以來測影技術發展的高峰,反映了我國天文科學發展的卓越成就,在世界天文史、建筑史上均有很高的價值。

         

        The Astronomical Observatory with Shadow-measuring Platform of Lord Zhou, one of the most remarkable achievements in the astronomical history in the world, is a strong proof of Songshan  Mountain being “The Center of Heaven and Earth”. Many foreign experts are amazed by their explorations and think it is a rare and well-preserved scientific material object (relic) in the world.

        周公測景臺和觀星臺充分驗證了嵩山“天地之中”,代表著世界天文史上最杰出的成就之一,多位國外專家考察后為之驚嘆,認為這是世界上少有的保存完整的科技實物。

         

         

        Photo:Liu Kebai

         

        The Twenty-Four Solar Terms applied by China was put on the Representative List of the Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity by UNESCO on November 30, 2016. The Twenty-Four Solar Terms, a cognition system of time, is honored as “the fifth great invention of China” in the international meteorological community.

        2016年11月30日,中國申報的“二十四節氣”列入聯合國教科文組織人類非物質文化遺產代表作名錄。在國際氣象界,這一時間認知體系被譽為“中國的第五大發明”。

         

         

        Gate of the Astronomical Observatory  觀星臺戟門

         

        As the birthplace of “the Twenty-Four Solar Terms”, Shadow-measuring Platform of Lord Zhou and the Astronomical Observatory in Yuan dynasty played an important role in applying for the world heritage during the three years. Located in the center place of China with four distinct seasons, Dengfeng provided the calendar developed here with an extensive radiation scope. Besides, as the core area of Chinese farming civilization birthplace, there were a lot of people living around Songshan in ancient time, which enabled the calendar to be applicable to a broad crowd in the country. Moreover, to apply for the world heritage, it is an essential material of the Astronomical Observatory for Dengfeng to complete the relevant documents and feature films.

        而在3年的申遺歷程中,作為測定出“二十四節氣”的周公測景臺、元代觀星臺占有重要地位。不僅是因為中原地區四季分明,鄭州登封位于中國中心區域,在此制定的歷法輻射范圍廣泛,同時嵩山還是華夏農耕文明發祥地的核心區域,古代中原地區人口眾多。在這里確定的二十四節氣適用地區、適用人群廣泛,能放之四海而皆準。同時,登封承擔了二十四節氣的相關申報文本撰寫、專題片拍攝等工作,觀星臺的地位不可撼動。

         

        The Astronomical Observatory is not only an important astronomical architecture for calendar measurement, an embodiment of core conception of Historic Monuments in “The Center of Heaven and Earth”, but also the most direct historical relic proof of the Twenty-Four Solar Terms and important carrier for the World Intangible Cultural Heritage.

        觀星臺不僅是測算歷法的主要天文建筑,天地之中歷史建筑群核心理念的體現者,也是二十四節氣產生的最直接文物史證,是中國二十四節氣世界非物質文化遺產的重要載體。

         

        Photo:Ma Jian

         

        On May 8, 2019, Dengfeng Astronomical Observatory will witness the grand opening of the Torch Ceremony and Internet Torch Relay Launching Ceremony of the 11th National Traditional Games of Ethnic Minorities of PRC. Let’s join the party to feel the time-honored profound culture of Zhengzhou as the capital of Shang dynasty as well as her updated charm featuring unique style, happiness and vitality.

        2019年5月8日,第十一屆全國少數民族傳統體育運動會——火種采集儀式暨互聯網火炬傳遞啟動儀式,將在登封觀星臺舉行。屆時,讓我們一起感受商都鄭州古老厚重的文化底蘊和“時尚、快樂、活力”的時代魅力新姿。

        所屬類別: 公司動態

        該資訊的關鍵詞為:中國、少數民族、運動會、天地之中、觀星臺、采集火種 

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